An Efficient Approach to the Five-Axis Flank Milling of Non-Ferrous Spiral Bevel Gears – PMC
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We have training facilities in a number of cities across Canada and some of our courses can also be offered onsite, depending on trainer availability. Learn more at eMastercam. Our library of Mastercam Training Solutions consists of several product lines that cater to any learning mastercam 2018 5 axis free. Mastercam Community eMastercam is the one-stop web resource for Mastercam users. People from all over the world visit the site whether they are teaching, learning or working with Mastercam daily.
Members can post questions, comments or share projects and success stories. Visit eMastercam. For downloaded pdf please visit www. Parallel toolpath with To Curve option.
Machine Simulation. Masteecam toolpath with From Curves option. Morph Curves toolpath. Parallel To Surface toolpath. Parallel To Curves toolpath. Transform Rotate toolpaths to machine the entire impeller. Retract tool along tool axis. This tutorial takes approximately twenty minutes to complete.
To apply these toolpaths to a 5 Axis machine tool, a customized post processor for your masfercam is required. There are no default 5 Axis post processors axjs with Mastercam due to the variation in multi-axis machine configurations. Contact your Mastercam reseller to request frree processor services such as multi-axis post development. Your post processor may require certain additional programming information not covered in this tutorial.
For instance: You may be required to position your stock in machine space rather than mastercam 2018 5 axis free Mastercam’s origin. You may be required to use the Misc Values. Your post may also prompt you for tool gage lengths. The nature of the additional information required largely depends on your machine’s configuration.
Contact the developer of your post processor for details. MCAM” from the directory you saved the file in. The Machine Definition is a model of your machine tool’s capabilities and features and acts взято отсюда a template for setting up machining jobs.
Figure: 2. Assign tool numbers sequentially allows you to overwrite the tool number from the library with the next available tool number First operation tool number 1; Second operation tool number wxis, etc. Warn of duplicate mastetcam numbers allows you to get a warning if you enter two mashercam with the same number. Override defaults with modal values enables the system to keep the values that you enter.
Feed Calculation set Mastercam 2018 5 axis free tool uses feed rate, plunge rate, retract rate and spindle speed from the tool definition. NOTE: Remember that the stock is not geometry and cannot be selected. You will use the defined stock masteram verifying the part. You can work with mastercam 2018 5 axis free full interface that gives you access to all the available parameters and options. You can also choose from a number of simplified interfaces that have 208 customized for specific applications and machining strategies.
These toolpaths work on surfaces. Solid selection is available for most advanced multiaxis toolpath strategies, with the following exceptions: toolpaths that require the selection of вот ссылка defined edge solid edge and toolpaths that require the selection of only a single surface solid face.
This is useful for engraving and similar dree. Projection curves should вот ссылка on or above the surface, within the maximum projection /20494.txt. Toolpath Type The Toolpath Type page allows you to establish the type of multiaxis toolpath to create. The toolpath type axs the options available as you proceed down the tree structure.
218 Toolpath Type page allows you to select between mastercaj two toolpath groups, Pattern or Applications. You can mqstercam choose one of the toolpaths inside of that group. Mastercam 2018 5 axis free Step Discover other Mastercam Training Solutions at www.
While there, be sure to join the conversation! Expand your Mastercam knowledge, anytime and at your own pace, with our selection of step-by-step online video eCourses. Book a demo and see for yourself! This powerful solution prepares your mastercam 2018 5 axis free for the real world of robotics and provides them with the necessary skills to not only be hired, but to excel. Implementing successful post processors for decades, the post department at In-House Solutions has earned a reputation for quality, resulting in one of the largest post departments in the world.
We have an extensive library that is continually developed and expanded to include frfe machines and controllers. If a post is not already available, we will develop a custom one for nearly any machine. We have great relationships with OEMs who provide technical information for both machines and controls, which in turn allows us to produce post processors that will generate edit-free code and run your machine efficiently.
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In some cases, the tooth surfaces should be modified by changing the machine setting or cutter motion. Fan [ 7 ] used higher-order polynomials to represent the cradle increment angle of the machine setting than the conventional way and developed TCA tooth contact analysis programs in the Gleason commercial software CAGE.
Simon [ 8 ] reduced the transmission errors by defining the cradle radial setting and the cutting ratio with fifth-order polynomial functions and optimizing them.
All of these approaches are equipped with special gear manufacturing machine tools, which rely on corresponding manufacturers. Although CNC milling has a lower production rate than the conventional approaches, it takes advantage of cutting SBGs for small batches, prototypes and repairs When the gear is worn, it can be repaired by CNC milling.
In addition, since the rigidity of CNC milling machine tools is poorer than the conventional gear machine tools, the cutting efficiency is limited to the application of CNC milling to the gears with the hard material.
This limitation is not a serious problem for the non-ferrous metals. Hence, it would be beneficial to find the efficient way for CNC milling of non-ferrous gears. Tsiafis et al. Li et al. In order to solve the problem that the tooth surface points cannot cover the whole tooth surface, Wang et al. Shih et al. Based on the updated Kriging model, Deng et al. The alternative mode, flank milling, removes the material along the cutter flank.
Comparing end milling and flank milling, flank milling takes advantage of quality enhancement, manufacturing time and cost reduction [ 18 , 19 ], and it has been widely applied to manufacturing a ruled surface [ 20 ].
For some of the existing practical models of SBGs, their working parts are ruled surfaces, or some are close to ruled surfaces. Hence, it makes sense to apply the flank milling to cut SBGs. Flank milling and the manufacturing of SBGs are two different disciplines. Exksting research on flank milling is mainly about the minimization of machining errors. The corresponding issues include envelope surface [ 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 ], cutter-workpiece engagements [ 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 ], geometrical deviations [ 24 , 31 , 32 ], tool path planning strategies [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 ], tool path optimization with: particle swarm optimization method [ 40 ], dynamic programming method [ 41 ], local method [ 42 ], global method [ 43 ], constraints [ 44 ], generic cutters [ 45 ], the consideration of tool path smoothness [ 46 ], the influences of tool axis [ 47 ] and cutter runout [ 48 , 49 ], cutter optimization of shape [ 50 ] and size [ 51 ], etc.
In contrast, the manufacturing of SBGs values the working performances [ 21 ], such as contact path and transmission errors. By considering the difference, Zhou et al. Meanwhile, they did not give the solution of TCA for the flank milling of SBGs, and it is very difficult, due to the complicated tooth surface geometry, but important since, it directly evaluates the meshing performances of the machined SBGs. In this work, a filleted end mill cutter is used to simultaneously cut the tooth surface and tooth bottom with only one pass, and this method improves the machining efficiency by avoiding the extra pass to cut the tooth bottom, which is necessary for the methods in [ 52 , 53 ].
In addition, compared with the traditional flank milling method considering the whole tooth surface errors, the tool path planning strategy and optimization model proposed in this paper focus on the machining accuracy near the tooth surface contact area, which can ensure that the tooth surface has better meshing performances.
In order to verify the effectiveness and authenticity of the proposed method, the TCA with FEM is applied with a novel tooth surface modeling approach to check the meshing performances of the machined SBGs, and actual machining experiments are carried out.
The analysis results show that the contact area is qualified. In Section 2 , the tooth surface and meshing of SBGs are introduced. The optimization model of tool path planning is established in Section 3. With the planned tool path, a new closed-form representation is proposed to efficiently generate tooth surface points with an even distribution for the convenience of building the FEM model.
The cutting simulation and experiments are explained in Section 5. Each tooth slot has both a convex side and a concave side. The depth of the tooth slot gradually decreases from heel to toe. The details of the tooth surface model can be referred to as [ 2 , 53 ]. When a pair of SBGs are meshing to transfer power during the process of two tooth surfaces engaging with each other, they contact at different points when they are treated as rigid bodies.
Practically, they contact at small ellipses around the contact points due to the deformation of the tooth surface. The contact paths are formed by connecting these points, and the contact area is generated by joining these contact ellipse. Once both tooth surfaces of a pair of gear drive are obtained, the contact path and area can be calculated by TCA [ 21 ].
For a gear drive, edge contact should be avoided since it decreases work performance and serves life. A good design of tooth surface should be capable of avoiding the edge contact while considering practical circumstances, including manufacturing errors, load, and errors of alignment. Subsequently, an ideal contact path is usually chosen as the middle of a pair of tooth surfaces of a gear drive [ 21 ], as shown in Figure 1.
Since the tooth surface is a complex 3D surface, it is difficult to define the ideal contact path directly. Alternatively, it can be defined according to the gear blank. As shown in Figure 1 , the ideal contact path is coincident to the middle of a pair of tooth surface.
Subsequently, the mapping relationship can be used to calculate the contact point on the tooth surface [ 52 ]. We have a system of two equations in two unknowns [ 52 ]:. As shown in Figure 2 , a process is considered to generate a cutter envelope surface tangent to the tooth surface along the contact path.
At each instant of the process, the cutter surface is tangent to the tooth surface at a point, which is represented on both surfaces as p and q , respectively. Once p contributes as a point on the cutter envelope surface, it means the cutter envelope surface is also tangent to the designed surface at p. The left side of Equation 2 is directly determined by the CC line on the cutter surface. With both models of tooth surface and contact path, the tool path planning for five-axis flank milling is implemented with two steps.
First, the tool path strategy based on the necessary conditions is used to make the cutter envelope surface tangent to the designed surface along the contact path. Second, cutter orientations are optimized to obtain the minimal geometric deviations of the contact area. In order to improve the efficiency, the fillet end mill cutter is used to process the tooth slot once to ensure the one-time machining of tooth surface and fillet part. As shown in Figure 3 , a filleted end mill cutter is used only one pass to machine the convex side of the tooth surface.
According to the necessary conditions, the cutter is planned to be tangent to the tooth surface along the contact path. For a point q on the contact path, a local coordinate system S q q ; n , t , d is established. Furthermore, the tool path planning strategy is stated with two aspects: the cutter axis l is a unit vector in the tangent plane t q d ; cutter tip point o c is determined according to the tangent between the cutter and root cone.
With a given l , o c can be determined with a solution to h calculated according to the condition that the cutter is tangent with root cone, which will be explained later. We have. It should be noted that because the fillet part is directly machined by the bottom of the cutter, it is necessary to ensure that the toroidal surface of the cutter is tangent to the root cone.
Therefore, the following equation holds. When the toroidal surface is tangent to the root cone, h m can be approximately regarded as h in Equation 3.
Therefore, h in Equation 3 can be replaced by h m in Equation 4 to obtain the coordinates of tip point o c. Because n , t , and d can be calculated in coordinate system S g , l and o c can also be obtained in S g by transforming from S q. In summary, the tool path planning strategy generally meets the following conditions. Once the cutter envelope surface and tooth surface are tangent along the contact path, both of them have the same normal curvature at every point on the tangent direction of the contact path.
An effective way to reduce the geometric deviations around this point is to minimize the relative normal curvature of direction d [ 53 ]. Furthermore, for the geometric deviations of the contact area, it is an effective way to minimize the overall relative normal curvatures of direction d along the contact path.
By inserting Equation 3 into Equations 10 and 11 , the cutter envelop surface can be obtained. When the representations of theoretical tooth surface and cutter envelope surface are known, the normal curvature of any point on the surface along any direction can be calculated according to the theory of differential geometry. For a point q u , v on the contact path, the principal curvature and principal direction at this point can be calculated by Equation 6.
Then, according to Euler formula, the normal curvature of point q along the tangent direction d is. In some cases, the absolute value of relative normal curvature is close to 0, so the minimum relative curvature radius can be used to describe the closeness between two surfaces, as shown in Figure 6.
In order to ensure the good contact performances of the tooth surface after flank milling, the contact analysis of the tooth surface based on the FEM can be carried out, so the three-dimensional model of the tooth surface is needed. In order to facilitate the modeling in an efficient way, tooth surface points should be generated with an approximately even distribution [ 54 ]. Although [ 54 ] gave an effective way to achieve this goal, a complicated computation algorithm was applied to solve a global optimization problem.
In contrast, we here give a new way, which directly applies closed-form calculations to efficiently generate the tooth surface points. The envelope surface is the boundary of the family surfaces.
The envelope surface can be calculated as a closed-form result according to the geometric meshing theory or geometric envelope approach [ 2 , 31 ] as. However, for some special cases, Equations 10 and 11 are not appropriate to obtain the contact points covering the whole tooth surface, which will be mentioned later. Now, another method of calculating the envelope surface is introduced by taking the filleted end mill cutter as an example.
As shown in Figure 7 , assume that p 2 is a contact point on the toroidal surface, n 2 denotes the unit normal of the cutter surface at p 2 , t is a unit vector on the plane determinated by p 2 and l , and t is orthogonal to the tool axis l.
The geometric characteristic can be expressed as. Combining with this geometric characteristic and envelope condition, we can obtain the contact points on the toroidal part, which will be described next. As shown in Figure 7 , p 2 can be expressed as. Assume that p h is the center point of the circle, which is the intersection of cylindrical part and toroidal part, the velocity of point p h is v h.
Hence, Equation 15 can be rewritten as. According to the Equations 12 and 16 , n 2 can be obtained as. By substituting Equation 17 into Equation 13 , corresponding contact points can be calculated. By sampling parameter t with all directions on the plane orthogonal to the tool axis l , the contact curve on the toroidal part can be obtained.
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Others Others. NOTE: Remember that the stock is not geometry and cannot be selected. You will use the defined stock while verifying the part. You can work with the full interface that gives you access to all the available parameters and options.
You can also choose from a number of simplified interfaces that have been customized for specific applications and machining strategies. These toolpaths work on surfaces. Solid selection is available for most advanced multiaxis toolpath strategies, with the following exceptions: toolpaths that require the selection of a defined edge solid edge and toolpaths that require the selection of only a single surface solid face.
This is useful for engraving and similar applications. Projection curves should lie on or above the surface, within the maximum projection distance.
Toolpath Type The Toolpath Type page allows you to establish the type of multiaxis toolpath to create. The toolpath type controls the options available as you proceed down the tree structure. The Toolpath Type page allows you to select between the two toolpath groups, Pattern or Applications.
You can then choose one of the toolpaths inside of that group. Angle Step Discover other Mastercam Training Solutions at www.
While there, be sure to join the conversation! Expand your Mastercam knowledge, anytime and at your own pace, with our selection of step-by-step online video eCourses.
Book a demo and see for yourself! This powerful solution prepares your students for the real world of robotics and provides them with the necessary skills to not only be hired, but to excel. Implementing successful post processors for decades, the post department at In-House Solutions has earned a reputation for quality, resulting in one of the largest post departments in the world.
We have an extensive library that is continually developed and expanded to include current machines and controllers.
If a post is not already available, we will develop a custom one for nearly any machine. We have great relationships with OEMs who provide technical information for both machines and controls, which in turn allows us to produce post processors that will generate edit-free code and run your machine efficiently.
Mastercam 2018 5 axis free. Mastercam 2018 For SolidWorks Free Download
Mastercam For SolidWorks Free Download, Powerful CAM application, Machining and Turning, 2D designing, 5-axis milling and turning. Mastercam For SolidWorks Free Download for Windows either based on 32 bit architecture or 64 bit. Setup file an offline installer and.